都市規劃是一個塑造空間的專業,都市規劃專業是在怎樣的歷史背景下產生的? 在不同的歷史背景下,都市規劃專業又是如何的演變? 其中主要的規劃思想是什麼? 不同的規劃思想之間存在怎樣的辯論?
這門課的目標為協助剛接觸都市規劃的學生建立有關規劃的知識與方法,這門課主要在回顧一些規劃的思想源流、方法、以及不同都市議題的發展過程。課程將從探討規劃的起源開始,並對為何需要規劃?規劃師的社會角色定位究竟為何?這些問題的進行辯論式的思考。其中將介紹1960年代社會運動所引起的都市計劃專業反省,對理性全盤規劃的挑戰,以及之後所產生的規劃方法:漸進式、倡議式、策略式、平等式、合作式、基進式 規劃;最後介紹各個都市議題的發展。課程的內容將隨時納入臺灣的規劃經驗與歷史。

主要書目:
Campbell, Scott & Susan S. Fainstein, (eds). 2003. Readings in Planning Theory Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc.
Campbell, Scott & Susan S. Fainstein, (eds). 2002. Readings in Urban Theory Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc.
Saunders, S. William. 2006. Urban Planning Today. Minneapolis & London: University of Minnesota.

說明:這門課最主要是從我以前在Rutgers的修習課程內容改編,我加上Urban Planning Today 這本暢銷書。 Scott Campbell 在編完這兩本讀本之後,從Rutgers 轉任於College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University Of Michigan。他的網頁有新的教學大綱,可做為參考。
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdcamp/up540/index.html

課程內容:
早期的都市規劃思想:
這些規劃思想雖然在發生在歐美國家,但卻影響都市規劃專業的興起,以及許多歐美國家與第三世界的都市規劃。

1. 花園城市: 19世紀的工業城都市的問題與規劃專業的興起
Hall, Peter. 1996. Cities of Tomorrow. Oxford: Blackwell. Chs. 1-3
Fishman, Robert. "Urban Utopias: Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier," in Readings in Planning Theory

2. 區域主義(Regionalism)和區域規劃
美國區域主義如何分析城市規劃與國家規劃的缺點
為何美國缺乏區域規劃,是否反映美國的排除主義(exceptionalism),以及去中心(decentralization)的現象
Hall, Peter. 1996. Cities of Tomorrow. Oxford: Blackwell. Chs. 4-5

3. 城市美化運動、紀念碑運動 (Monumentalism)以及現代主義
早期現代混雜的都市社會被認為具有的危險與文化問題,城市美化運動如何因應之?
規劃過程和都市設計的現代主義根源為何? 為何早期的現代主義被排斥? 為何許多20世紀規劃的失敗例子都歸咎於現代主義?
Hall, Chs. 6-7;
Wilson, "The Glory, Destruction, and Meaning of the City Beautiful Movement," in Readings in Planning Theory

美國的都市規劃問題
4. 美國郊區化的發展與近年來的新都市主義(New Urbanism)思潮
郊區化的起源與原因;為何Robert Fishmen認為古典的郊區將終結? 新都市主義(New Urbanism)是否足以因應美國郊區蔓延的問題?
Hall, Peter. 1996. Cities of Tomorrow (Chs. 3, 9)
Fishman, Robert. 2002. "Bourgeois Utopias: Visions of Suburbia," in Readings in Urban Theory
Douglas Kelbaugh. 2002. "The New Urbanism," in Readings in Urban Theory
Carol Burns, Robert Campbell, Andres Duany, Jerold Kayden and Alex Krieger. 2002. "Urban or Suburban?" in Readings in Urban Theory

5. 都市需不需要規劃? 關於規劃專業的辯論
為何規劃師要介入私有市場(neoclassical vs. institutional vs. structural/Marxist explanations)? 對規劃專業的主要批評為何? 規劃師如何看待政府與市場的關係?
規劃師的所作所為和他們如何看待自己之間,是否有落差存在?
政府和私部門所提供的貨品與服務是否有所不同?
Richard Klosterman. "Arguments for and Against Planning";
Richard E. Foglesong, "Planning the Capitalist City";
David Harvey, "On Planning the Ideology of Planning," all in Readings in Planning Theory

6. 規劃模式: 規劃師如何干預? 規劃應以全盤或漸進為主? 規劃師應為中立的技術官僚或為倡導者? 是否只有一種共同的公共利益?規劃師應對什麼人忠誠? (道德上的困境)
Susan S. Fainstein and Norman I. Fainstein. "City Planning and Political Values: An Updated View,"
Charles E. Lindblom. "The Science of Muddling Through,"
Paul Davidoff. "Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning,"
Jerome L. Kaufman and Harvey M. Jacobs. "A Public Planning Perspective on Strategic Planning,"
Norman Krumholz. "A Retrospective View of Equity Planning: Cleveland, 1969-1979," in Readings in Planning Theory

7. 新的規劃模式
以”客觀和最佳模式”和”互為主體的溝通行動”之間有何差別? 這和多元文化、平等、融合、以及銓釋學的新思想之間的關係為何?
科學家和普羅大眾如何改變環境影響評估?說故事式的規劃方式扮演什麼樣的角色? 普遍性的模式和複雜性 (complexity)如何在豐富的社會/地方的脈絡中對話?

William H. Lucy. "APA's Ethical Principles Include Simplistic Planning Theories," In Readings in Planning Theory
Patsy Healey. "Planning through Debate: The Communicative Turn in Planning Theory," In Readings in Planning Theory
Frank Fischer. "Risk Assessment and Environmental Crisis: Toward an Integration of Science and Participation," In Readings in Planning Theory
John Forester. "Learning from Practice Stories: The Priority of Practical Judgment," In Readings in Planning Theory

規劃的種族與性別議題
8. 貧窮與種族議題
如何衡量貧窮? 貧窮與種族之間的關係為何? 都市底層是什麼 (underclass)?是否為一有效概念? 種族隔離的問題如何解決?
William W. Goldsmith. 2002. "From the Metropolis to Globalization: The Dialectics of Race and Urban Form," in Readings in Urban Theory
Norman Fainstein. 2002. "Race, Class, and Segregation: Discourse about African Americans," in Readings in Urban Theory
Roger Lawson and William Julius Wilson. 2002. "Poverty, Social Rights and the Quality of Citizenship," in Readings in Urban Theory
Hall, Peter. 1996. Cities of Tomorrow (Ch. 12)

9. 性別議題
男女是否有不同的都市經驗? 城市如何加強現有及過去的性別角色? 女性主義的規劃理論為何?
A Discussion on Gender," in Readings in Planning Theory

10. 後現代城市:
對城市與規劃的後現代觀點為何? 我們如何融合後現代的多重聲音與對社會正義的要求?
David Harvey. 2002. "Social Justice, Postmodernism, and the City," In Readings in Urban Theory
Beauregard, Robert A. "Between Modernity and Postmodernity: the Ambiguous Position of US Planning." In Readings in Planning Theory

11. 美國都市計畫的問題與趨勢
Saunders, S. William. 2006. Urban Planning Today. Minneapolis & London: University of Minnesota.

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